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小波 | 20th May 2012, 12:36 PM | 貓貓 | (4272 Reads)

目錄:

#2 什麼是好的貓糧?
#3 貓貓的天然飲食及一般營養需要
#4 貓糧成份標籤
#5 普遍貓糧成份大檢閱 - 垃圾篇(商業糧)
#6 普遍貓糧成份大檢閱 - 扮"天然"篇 (劣質"天然"糧)
#7 普遍貓糧成份大檢閱 - 較優質篇
#8 貓糧食用量及價格大比拼
 

 

 

#2 什麼是好的貓糧?

最近不少版友都有詢問這個問題,什麼才是好的貓糧呢?
健康? 好味? 有營養? 平?
相信各位愛貓之人都希望貓貓食得開心、健康,價錢都最好越平越好啦~ 對嗎?

在選擇愛貓的糧食的時侯,我們應該要注意些什麼?
口碑? a,b,c,d,e版友說 x糧很好, 那就買x糧了嗎?
知名度, 包裝, 宣傳? 偉嘉說是貓咪營養專家, 又多廣告? 那偉嘉就是好貓糧?
獸醫推介? 獸醫大力推介hills, 那就買hills給貓貓?
口味? Royal Canin的糧好味, 所以就是好嗎?

如你現在是以以上4項選貓糧給愛貓, 你就更應該細讀以下內容了...
因為, 你很可能選擇錯貓糧給愛貓

正確選擇貓糧的注意事項
選擇貓糧時, 最主要的是以:
1. 貓糧成份標籤
2. 營養分析
3. 愛貓的特別需要

為什麼是以上三項呢? 讓我打個比方吧!
如我們, 人類 食物也有很多...
零食, 美式快餐, 住家菜等等
這些都是食物, 但對人的健康有不同的影響
零食 - 口味一流, 但有沒有營養, 大家心裡有數吧!
美式快餐 - 好吃又方便, 不過包含太多調味料, 太多肉類
住家菜 - 味道一般, 不夠零食及美式快餐吸引, 但勝在可以以人類的營養需要出發, 多飯, 多菜, 少肉, 調味料較少
如果長期是吃零食,  美式快餐, 後果大家都想像得到吧!
好似很簡單的道理, 但細心一想, 大家都知道我們吃的是什麼(成份), 營養方面, 及自己的需要
所以大家都會平衡到好味及健康的大前提去選擇食物

貓糧也是一樣, 不過貓糧我們只是看到一粒粒, 看不到成份, 故要看 成份標籤 營養分析
再按照愛貓的特別需要去選擇~

#3 貓貓的天然飲食及一般營養需要
在講解貓糧成份標籤, 營養分析之先, 先講解一下貓貓的天性
那大家才能深入的認識愛貓的需要

貓貓的天性
和人不一樣, 貓是天生的肉食者
五穀對愛貓來說, 是不重要的
有些五穀, 對貓貓來說, 有些甚至是致敏元
所以貓糧應該以肉類為最主要的成份

一般貓貓所需營養
成貓 -
旦白質  不少於26%
脂肪質  不少於9%
碳水化合物  0%

幼貓, 懷孕或哺乳中的貓貓 -
旦白質  不少於30%
脂肪質  不少於9%
碳水化合物  0%

大家查看現時所餵食的貓糧, 應該大都符合標準
不過, 不知大家有沒有聽過舊鞋狗糧的故事呢?

有獸醫了為抗議人類太重視數字但其實這些數字不代表什麼
故做了以下的舊鞋狗糧的故事

材料: 4對舊皮鞋, 1加侖用過的機油 1桶已壓碎的煤 及68磅水
營養分析: 10% 概約旦白質 6.5%概約脂肪質 2.4%纖維

以上的狗糧符合了AAFCO的標準, 但沒有人給貓貓/狗狗吃的吧?

水份
另外, 因為貓天生吃肉的關係, 貓貓會習慣在肉類吸收水份
而不是自行喝水
所以濕糧對於甚少自行喝水的貓貓來說就是好選擇
其實, 濕糧對於所有貓貓來說, 都是最理想的貓糧, 為什麼呢?

濕糧的誤解
不少愛貓之人都對濕糧存在誤解

對牙齒有害?
事實上,濕糧對貓貓的牙齒沒有特別的益處,但別乾糧也不見得對牙齒有益.
最理想的是定期跟貓貓刷牙!!

多防腐劑?
製造過程本身是個防腐程序, 故濕糧反而較乾糧少防腐劑呢!

營養少?
乾糧和濕糧的營養數字, 需要以Dry Matter來比較營養
引自Hills的網站:
”所有的寵物食品都含有不同程度水份 (moisture). 乾料產品通常是低於10% 水份含量, 罐頭則約 80% 的水份. 這便增加了比較不同水份含量產品時的困難度了因為水份會影響一個產品的營養含量或密度. 所以, 當我們以去除水份後"乾物重分析"來表示產品的營養含量時就會較容易比較了.計算方式如下:
100% - 水份 (moisture) % = (乾物重) Dry Matter% ”

經過計算後, 大多數貓濕糧的營養不會少於乾糧, 反之更多
大家想比較可以利用以下網頁幫幫手, 方便準確呢
連結


#4 貓糧成份標籤
成份標籤? 我不懂看呢, 如何是好?
小妹初初也不太認識, 經過少許研究後, 簡單的分析已不會難到我了
以下是一些基本資料, 希望幫到大家

P.S. 主要現時大家應為好的貓糧我們稱之為天然糧, 但現時不少商業糧已有新系列扮天然
但成份依然很差及賣得超貴, 所以大家要小心留意及比較呀!

成份標籤基本資訊
材料是以其重量比例而例出的, 故重量比例最高的會優先列出, 最少的會在最後


肉類的選擇
肉類, 因為是貓貓的最主要天然飲食成份, 故在貓糧的頭5種材料中, 起碼有一至兩種都是高質素的動物旦白質才是理想。
鮮肉因為含水量高, 故如成份標籤排第一, 直到第七、八仍未有另一種高質素的動物旦白質, 那都不是很理想的貓糧
在包裝上, 大家會見到不少不同的名字代表肉類, 有什麼分別呢?

以下為美國動物飼糧管理協會(AAFCO)對肉及其相關產品所下的定義:

1. Meat(肉): 肉為乾淨、新鮮,由動物屠體骨架所分離的骨骼肌或由舌頭、橫膈、心臟、食道所分離的條紋肌,正常所連附的皮膚、腱、脂肪、神經及血管可以接受。如欲標示特定肉類,如Beef(牛肉)、Chicken(雞肉)及Lamb(小羊肉),必須確實來自其相對的動物種類。

2. Poultry(禽肉): 禽肉為由禽類屠體所分離出乾淨的肉與皮的混合物,可附帶骨,但不可含羽毛、頭、腳及內臟。

3. Meat Meal(肉粉): 如Lamb Meal(小羊肉粉),肉粉為除血液、毛髮、蹄、角、胃及瘤胃內容物...等以外的已搾油之乾燥動物組織,不可含有外物。

4. Poultry Meal(禽肉粉): 如Chicken Meal(雞肉粉),禽肉粉為乾燥、已搾油過、由禽類屠體所分離出乾淨的肉與皮的混物,可附帶骨,但不可含羽毛、頭、腳及內臟。

5. Meat and Bone Meal(肉骨粉): 肉骨粉為除血液、毛髮、蹄、角、皮渣、糞、胃及瘤胃內容物...等以外的已搾油乾燥帶骨動物組織,不可含有外物。

6. Meat By-products(肉類副產品): 肉類副產品為由屠體分離出未搾油、乾淨的"肉以外的部份",可包括肺、脾、腎、腦、肝、血、骨、部份去脂低溫脂肪組織及胃腸(去除內容物)。不含毛、蹄、角及牙。

7. Poultry By-products(禽類副產品): 禽類副產品必須含有未搾油過、由禽類屠體所分離出乾淨的頭、腳及內臟。但不可含糞便及外物-除非是處理過程中無法避免之微量可接受雜質。

8. Poultry By-product Meal(禽類副產品粉): 禽類副產品粉包括磨成粉狀、搾過油的部份禽類屠體,如頸、腳、未成形蛋、腸,不含羽毛。除非是良好處理過程中無法避免的微量可接受雜質。

9. Animal By-product Meal(動物副產品粉): 動物副產品粉為已搾油後的動物組織,不包括毛、蹄、角、皮渣、糞、胃及瘤胃內容物-除非是良好處理過程中無法避免的微量可接受雜質。

以上九種動物性原料都可提供寵物食品中最重要的蛋白質,
但是其部位及要求的品質卻相差非常多。

其中最珍貴的可說是"肉或禽肉",因其為新鮮、不含羽毛、頭、腳及內臟等的純肉。
其次是"肉粉或禽肉粉",此為已搾過油的乾燥肉。
再次為"肉骨粉",不但搾過油,而且帶骨。
更次為"肉類或禽類副產品",為將肉類剔除後所剩餘之物。
"肉類或禽類副產品粉"則是進一步再將肉類或禽類副產品的油搾出後的產物。
而動物副產品粉則是其中最廉價的成份。

應該避免的成份
貓糧有很多不同的成份, 有一些成份是不宜貓貓食用的
但可恨的是, 有些貓糧會有大量此類成份!
所以大家在選擇的時候應當小心注意

有一些我們稱之為商業糧的貓糧, 如偉嘉, Hills(包括nature best),Pro Plan, Royal Canin
甚至稱之為天然糧的貓糧, 如1st Choice, ProNature
這些貓糧肉類成份其實一早已經不夠理想, 再加上以以下的不好/沒有營養的成份

Corn Gluten Meal -
死因 : An inexpensive by-product of human food processing which offers very little nutritional value and serves mainly to bind food together. It is not a harmful ingredient but should be avoided simply for its poor nutritional value and quality.

Brewers Rice -
定義 AAFCO: The small milled fragments of rice kernels that have been separated from the larger kernels of milled rice.
死因 : A processed rice product that is missing many of the nutrients contained in whole ground rice and brown rice. Contrary to what many pet food companies want to make you believe, this is not a high quality ingredient, just much cheaper than whole grain rice.

Animal Fat -
定義 AAFCO: Obtained from the tissues of mammals and/or poultry in the commercial processes of rendering or extracting. It consists predominantly of glyceride esters of fatty acids and contains no additions of free fatty acids. If an antioxidant is used, the common name or names must be indicated, followed by the words "used as a preservative".
死因:  Note that the animal source is not specified and is not required to originate from "slaughtered" animals. The rendered animals can be obtained from any source, so there is no control over quality or contamination. Any kind of animal can be included: "4-D animals" (dead, diseased, disabled, or dying prior to slaughter), goats, pigs, horses, rats, misc. roadkill, animals euthanized at shelters, restaurant and supermarket refuse and so on.

還有會易令貓貓致敏的Wheat, Corn, Soy/Soybean, 營養零分及引致糖尿/過程的Corn Syrup等等等等....
以外, 不少需要注意的地方, 如Menadione和Ethoxyquin, 以下的版面已有詳細解說, 不另作說明了
>>>Menadione 和 Ethoxyquin的壞處<<<

而另外要小心的成份, 可以在此網頁找到
>>>其他應該要避免的成份及解釋<<<


#5 普遍貓糧成份大檢閱 - 垃圾篇(商業糧)

根據以上準則, 大家一起看看貓糧成份吧!!! (部份轉載自另一論壇urayama的內容加以修改)
紅字是不好/營養零份的成份...
如你地所餵的是以下牌子, 建議速速轉糧



由於以下品牌全系列問題差不多,故不逐一詳列成份...
只提供其一以作參考


Royal Canin (Fit 32)
Chicken meal, brown rice, corn, corn gluten meal, chicken, chicken fat (naturally preserved with mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract and citric acid), pea fiber,natural chicken flavor, beet pulp (sugar removed), dried brewers yeast, rice hulls, dried egg powder, salmon oil, salt, calcium sulfate, soya oil, potassium chloride, DL-methionine, choline chloride, brewers yeast extract (Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation solubles), L-lysine, sodium tripolyphosphate, taurine, Vitamins [dl-alpha tocopherol (source of vitamin E), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C*), niacin, biotin, riboflavin (vitamin B2), d-calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin A acetate, vitamin D3 supplement, folic acid], Trace Minerals [zinc proteinate, zinc oxide, ferrous sulfate, copper proteinate, copper sulfate, manganese proteinate, manganous oxide, sodium selenite, calcium iodate], marigold extract.

Hills (Adult Original)

Chicken By-Product Meal, Ground Whole Grain Corn, Brewers Rice, Animal Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Corn Gluten Meal, Chicken Liver Flavor, Potassium Chloride, Calcium Sulfate, Choline Chloride, vitamins (L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement), Iodized Salt, Vitamin E Supplement, Taurine, minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite), preserved with Mixed Tocopherols and Citric Acid, Beta-Carotene, Rosemary Extract. 


Pro Plan Chicken & Rice Formula for Adult Cats
Chicken, 
brewers rice, corn gluten meal, poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten, egg product, animal fat preserved with mixed-tocopherols (form of Vitamin E), wholegrain corn, wheat flour, fish meal, potassium chloride, brewers dried yeast,phosphoric acid, animal digest, calcium carbonate, salt, tetra sodium pyrophosphate, L-Lysine monohydrochloride, choline chloride, taurine, Vitamin E supplement, zinc sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid (source of Vitamin C), manganese sulfate, niacin, Vitamin A supplement, calcium pantothenate, thiamine mononitrate, copper sulfate, riboflavin supplement, Vitamin B-12 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, folic acid, Vitamin D-3 supplement, calcium iodate, biotin, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity), sodium selenite.


Hills Nature's Best with Real Chicken Adult
Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Animal Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Chicken Meal, Chicken, Ground Whole Grain Wheat, Dried Egg Product, Peas, Carrots, Chicken Liver Flavor, L-Lysine, Potassium Chloride, Dried Beet Pulp, Iron Oxide, Choline Chloride, Calcium Sulfate, DL- Methionine, Vitamin E Supplement, vitamins (L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement), Oat Fiber, Iodized Salt, Taurine, minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite), preserved with Mixed Tocopherols and Citric Acid, Beta-Carotene, Rosemary Extract.

Iams Original with Ocean Fish and Rice
Chicken By-Product Meal, Corn Meal, Chicken Fat (Preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Corn Grits
, Chicken Meal, Ocean Fish, Brewers Rice, Natural Chicken Flavor, Dried Beet Pulp (Sugar Removed), Dried Egg Product,Sodium Bisulfate, Potassium Chloride, Fish Oil (Preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), DL-Methionine, Brewers Dried Yeast, Choline Chloride, Vitamins (Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin A Acetate, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Thiamine Mononitrate (Source of Vitamin B1), Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Source of vitamin B6), Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement (Source of Vitamin B2), Inositol, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Folic Acid), Minerals (Zinc Oxide, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Potassium Iodide, Cobalt Carbonate), Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Rosemary Extract


Eukanuba Adult Chicken & Rice Formula
Chicken, Chicken Liver,
 Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Chicken By-Products, Fish Meal (source of fish oil), Corn Grits, Chicken Fat (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of vitamin E, and Citric Acid), Dried Beet Pulp (sugar removed), Dried Egg Product, Natural Chicken Flavor, Calcium Carbonate, Potassium Chloride, Vitamins (Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin A Acetate, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Thiamine Mononitrate (source of vitamin B1), Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (source of vitamin B6), Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement (source of vitamin B2), Inositol, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Folic Acid), DL-Methionine, Brewers Dried Yeast, Choline Chloride, Salt, Minerals (Zinc Oxide, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Potassium Iodide, Cobalt Carbonate), Rosemary Extract


WHISKAS MEATY SELECTIONS™
Ground Yellow Corn, Chicken By-product Meal, Corn Gluten Meal, Animal Fat (Preserved with BHA/BHT), Natural Poultry Flavor, Wheat Flour, Rice, Brewers Dried Yeast, Salt, Potassium Chloride, Choline Chloride, Turkey By-product Meal, Caramel Color, Calcium Carbonate, dl-Methionine, Taurine, Trace Minerals (Zinc Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Potassium Iodide), White Fish Meal, Vitamins (dl-Alpha Tocopherol)


Friskies Chef's Blend® 
Ground yellow corn, corn gluten meal, chicken by-product meal, meat and bone meal, beef tallow preserved with mixed-tocopherols (form of Vitamin E), soybean meal, corn germ meal, salmon meal, tuna meal, brewers dried yeast, phosphoric acid, animal digest, tetra sodium pyrophosphate, salt, potassium chloride, choline chloride, added color (Red 40, Yellow 5, Blue 2), taurine, zinc sulfate, ferrous sulfate, Vitamin E supplement, niacin, manganese sulfate, calcium carbonate, Vitamin A supplement, calcium pantothenate, thiamine mononitrate, copper sulfate, riboflavin supplement , Vitamin B-12 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, folic acid, Vitamin D-3 supplement, calcium iodate, biotin, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity), sodium selenite.

Royal Canin (Persian Kitten 32)
Dehydrated poultry meat, rice, animal fats, maize, vegetable protein isolate L.I.P.,hydrolysed animal proteins, vegetable fibres, beet pulp, yeasts, L-lysine, minerals, fish oil, soya oil, sodium phosphate, fructo-oligo-saccharides, psyllium husks and seeds, hydrolysed yeast (source of mannooligo- saccharides), DL-methionine, taurine, borage oil, marigold extract (source of lutein). 

Royal Canin (Persian 30)Dehydrated poultry meat, rice, animal fats, maize flour, vegetable fibres, vegetable protein isolate L.I.P., maize gluten, hydrolysed animal proteins, minerals, L-lysine, chicory pulp, fish oil, psyllium husks and seeds, sodium phosphate, soya oil, egg powder, fructo-oligo-saccharides, DL-methionine, hydrolysed yeast (source of manno-oligo-saccharides), taurine, borage oil, marigold extract (source of lutein). 

Royal Canin (Siamese 38)
Chicken meal, corn gluten meal, ground corn, brown rice, chicken fat, natural chicken flavor, rice, wheat gluten, oatmeal, dried beet pulp (sugar removed), rice hulls, L-lysine, anchovy oil (source of EPA/DHA), sodium silico aluminate, potassium chloride, calcium sulfate, soya oil, DL-methionine, fructo-oligosaccharides, monosodium phosphate, dried brewers yeast extract (source of mannan-oligosaccharides), dried egg product, taurine, choline chloride, Vitamins [DL-alpha tocopherol (source of vitamin E), inositol, niacin, L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), D-calcium pantothenate, biotin, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), riboflavin (vitamin B2), thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), vitamin A acetate, folic acid, vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin D3 supplement], borage oil, sodium tripolyphosphate, Trace Minerals [zinc proteinate, zinc oxide, ferrous sulfate, manganese proteinate, copper proteinate, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, calcium iodate, sodium selenite], marigold extract (Tagetes erecta L.), L-carnitine, rosemary extract, preserved with natural mixed tocopherols (source of vitamin E) and citric acid. 

Royal Canin (Baby Cat 34)
Chicken meal, rice, chicken fat, corn gluten meal, chicken, corn, natural chicken flavor, dried egg product, dried beet pulp (sugar removed), dried brewers yeast, soya oil, anchovy oil (source of EPA/DHA), L-lysine, powdered cellulose, salt, potassium chloride, sodium silico aluminate, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), dried brewers yeast extract (source of mannan-oligosaccharides), choline chloride, taurine, Vitamins [DL-alpha tocopherol acetate (source of vitamin E), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), biotin, niacin supplement, riboflavin (vitamin B2) supplement, D-calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), vitamin A acetate, thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), folic acid, vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin D3 supplement], Trace Minerals [zinc oxide, zinc proteinate, ferrous sulfate, manganese proteinate, copper sulfate, copper proteinate, manganous oxide, calcium iodate, sodium selenite], marigold extract (Tagetes erecta L.), L-Carnitine, preserved with natural mixed tocopherols (source of vitamin E) and citric acid, rosemary extract. 

Royal Canin (Kitten 34)
Chicken meal, brown rice, corn gluten meal, corn, chicken fat, chicken, dried egg product, natural chicken flavor, wheat gluten, dried beet pulp (sugar removed), L-lysine, anchovy oil (source of EPA/DHA), sodium silico aluminate, dried brewers yeast, soya oil, pea fiber, calcium carbonate, potassium chloride, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), sodium tripolyphosphate, salt, dried brewers yeast extract (source of mannan-oligosaccharides), choline chloride, taurine, Vitamins [DL-alpha tocopherol acetate (source of vitamin E), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), niacin supplement, biotin, riboflavin (vitamin B2) supplement, D-calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), vitamin A acetate, thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), folic acid, vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin D3 supplement], Trace Minerals [zinc oxide, zinc proteinate, ferrous sulfate, manganese proteinate, copper proteinate, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, calcium iodate, sodium selenite], marigold extract (Tagetes erecta L.), L-Carnitine, preserved with natural mixed tocopherols (source of vitamin E) and citric acid, rosemary extract.


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